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Cryptocurrency is a relatively risky investment, no matter which way you slice it. You may want to look first to shore up your retirement savings, pay off debt or invest in less-volatile funds made up of stocks and bonds. There are other ways to manage risk within your crypto portfolio, such as by diversifying the range of cryptocurrencies that you buy. Crypto assets may rise and fall at different degrees, and over different time periods, so by investing in several different products you can insulate yourself — to some degree — from losses in one of your holdings.
Perhaps the most important thing when investing in anything is to do your homework. This is particularly important when it comes to cryptocurrencies, which are often linked to a specific technological product that is being developed or rolled out. When you buy a stock, it is linked to a company that is subject to well-defined financial reporting requirements, which can give you a sense of its prospects. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, are more loosely regulated in the U.
If you have a financial advisor who is familiar with cryptocurrency, it may be worth asking for input. For beginning investors, it can also be worthwhile to examine how widely a cryptocurrency is being used. Most reputable crypto projects have publicly available metrics showing data such as how many transactions are being carried out on their platforms.
If use of a cryptocurrency is growing, that may be a sign that it is establishing itself in the market. Cryptocurrencies also generally make "white papers" available to explain how they'll work and how they intend to distribute tokens. If you're looking to invest in less established crypto products, here are some additional questions to consider:.
An identifiable and well-known leader is a positive sign. Are there other major investors who are investing in it? Will you own a portion in the company or just currency or tokens? This distinction is important. Is the currency already developed, or is the company looking to raise money to develop it? The further along the product, the less risky it is. Be sure to consider how to protect yourself from fraudsters who see cryptocurrencies as an opportunity to bilk investors.
The question of whether cryptocurrencies are legally allowed, however, is only one part of the legal question. Other things to consider include how crypto is taxed and what you can buy with cryptocurrency. Legal tender: You might call them cryptocurrencies, but they differ from traditional currencies in one important way: there's no requirement in most places that they be accepted as "legal tender.
El Salvador in became the first country to adopt Bitcoin as legal tender. Meanwhile, China is developing its own digital currency. For now, in the U. Crypto taxes: Again, the term "currency" is a bit of a red herring when it comes to taxes in the U. Cryptocurrencies are taxed as property, rather than currency.
That means that when you sell them, you'll pay tax on the capital gains, or the difference between the price of the purchase and sale. And if you're given crypto as payment — or as a reward for an activity such as mining — you'll be taxed on the value at the time you received them. Most cryptocurrencies are based on blockchain technology , a networking protocol through which computers can work together to keep a shared, tamper-proof record of transactions.
The challenge in a blockchain network is in making sure that all participants can agree on the correct copy of the historical ledger. Without a recognized way to validate transactions, it would be difficult for people to trust that their holdings are secure.
There are several ways of reaching "consensus" on a blockchain network, but the two that are most widely used are known as "proof of work" and "proof of stake. Proof of work is one way of incentivizing users to help maintain an accurate historical record of who owns what on a blockchain network. Bitcoin uses proof of work, which makes this method an important part of the crypto conversation. Blockchains rely on users to collate and submit blocks of recent transactions for inclusion in the ledger, and Bitcoin's protocol rewards them for doing so successfully.
This process is known as mining. There is stiff competition for these rewards, so many users try to submit blocks, but only one can be selected for each new block of transactions. To decide who gets the reward, Bitcoin requires users to solve a difficult puzzle, which uses a huge amount of energy and computing power. The completion of this puzzle is the "work" in proof of work. For lucky miners, the Bitcoin rewards are more than enough to offset the costs involved.
But the huge upfront cost is also a way to discourage dishonest players. If you win the right to create a block, it might not be worth the risk of tampering with the records and having your submission thrown out — forfeiting the reward. In this instance, spending the money on energy costs in an attempt to tamper with the historical record would have resulted in significant loss.
Ultimately, the goal of proof of work is to make it more rewarding to play by the rules than to try to break them. Proof of stake is another way of achieving consensus about the accuracy of the historical record of transactions on a blockchain. It eschews mining in favor of a process known as staking, in which people put some of their own cryptocurrency holdings at stake to vouch for the accuracy of their work in validating new transactions. Some of the cryptocurrencies that use proof of stake include Cardano, Solana and Ethereum which is in the process of converting from proof of work.
Proof of stake systems have some similarities to proof of work protocols, in that they rely on users to collect and submit new transactions. But they have a different way of incentivizing honest behavior among those who participate in that process. Essentially, people who propose new blocks of information to be added to the record must put some cryptocurrency at stake.
In many cases, your chances of landing a new block and the associated rewards go up as you put more at stake. People who submit inaccurate data can lose some of the money they've put at risk. Mining cryptocurrency is generally only possible for a proof-of-stake cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. And before you get too far, it is worth noting that the barriers to entry can be high and the probability of success relatively low without major investment.
While early Bitcoin users were able to mine the cryptocurrency using regular computers, the task has gotten more difficult as the network has grown. Now, most miners use special computers whose sole job is to run the complex calculations involved in mining all day every day.
And even one of these computers isn't going to guarantee you success. Many miners use entire warehouses full of mining equipment in their quest to collect rewards. This reduces the size of the reward you'd get for a successful block, but increases the chance that you could at least get some return on your investment. Just like with buying cryptocurrencies, there are several options for converting your crypto holdings into cash.
While decentralized exchanges and peer-to-peer transactions may be right for some investors, many choose to use centralized services to offload their holdings. With a centralized exchange, the process is basically the reverse of buying.
But one advantage if you own crypto is that you probably already have everything set up. Here are the steps:. Move your cryptocurrency onto the exchange. Transfer the proceeds back to your bank account. Also, remember that you may be creating crypto tax liability when you sell your digital assets. Also, remember that you may be creating. Disclosure: The author held no positions in the aforementioned investments at the original time of publication.
What is cryptocurrency? How to buy cryptocurrency safely. Decide where to buy it. Choose how you'll pay. Add value to your account. Select a cryptocurrency. Best cryptocurrencies by market capitalization. NerdWallet's ratings are determined by our editorial team. The scoring formula for online brokers and robo-advisors takes into account over 15 factors, including account fees and minimums, investment choices, customer support and mobile app capabilities.
Learn More. Fees 0. Promotion None no promotion available at this time. Keeping crypto safe. Pros and cons of cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency pros. Cryptocurrency cons. Managing cryptocurrency risk. Cryptocurrency legal and tax issues. Frequently asked questions How does a blockchain work?
What does proof of work mean? What is proof of stake? How do you mine cryptocurrency? How do you pull your money out of crypto? Sell your cryptocurrency.
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A cryptocurrency, crypto-currency, or crypto is a digital currency designed to work as a medium of exchange through a computer network that is not reliant on any central authority, such as a government or bank, to uphold or maintain it. Cryptocurrencies are digital assets created using computer networking software. Some are intended to be units of exchange, others are stores of value and. Ano ang Blockchain Technology? Ang Beginner's Guide sa Blockchain. If you're just getting started with cryptocurrency, you have probably heard the term “.